Total land area
National IDDRSI Coordination Mechanism
Under the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource there is a platform, which is sectoral working group b/n the government and the DPs: Known as RED&FS –SWG.
The REFDFS-SWG is headed by the EX-COM which is chaired by the respective minister and co-chaired by selected two DPs. Under the REDFS-SWG there are technical committees (TCs about 35- 40 members) chaired by the respective state Minister of Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries.
Under the TC there are various Task forces (20 -25 members) among which the Pastoral task force is the one responsible to coordinate the drought resilience initiatives in the pastoral areas of the country. The TF is chaired by the Director of pastoral affairs development Directorate. The other platform the coordination and oversighting is the steering committees which are established at all levels from national-regional to district levels).
Under the Ministry of livestock and fisheries there are two DRIs PCUs, which are responsible for the overall coordination and implementation of DR projects in the country. For the purpose of convenience, the ministry has established two DR PCUs: one for the AfDB supported project (DRSLP I and II including the KfW supported project) and second for the WB supported project (RPLRP) acooperation supported project. Likewise, there are DRIs for DRSLP I II and the RPLRP PCUs at regional and wereda levels including Mobile support team at zonal level
Production and Productivity
Cereal production and productivity have increased over the years. The increase is a result of primarily due to increase in the area under cultivation, and the increased use of inputs- mainly fertilizers and improved seeds. Total area under major food crops in 2009/10 was estimated to be about 11.25 million hectares with a total production of 19.1 million tons. This translates into a per capita grain production of 2.16 quintals which supplies the daily calorie requirement of 2100 kilo calories per adult per day. Overall there is a significant increase in the production of improved seeds; however, use of improved inputs, particularly improved seeds, is still very low. The combined trend of increased productivity and the current low use of inputs demonstrates the huge potential for increasing production of food grain crops, with the current effort sustained.
Despite the huge numbers livestock productivity, there is still much to be desired. The average daily milk yield of a local cow is estimated to be only 1.5 litreswith average annual production of about 213 litres. A camel is estimated to milk a daily average of 4.4 litres (CAADP-Ethiopia Study 2009). Per capita consumption of milk is estimated at 23(CAADP Ethiopia Study, 2009) litres per year. Meat production is no different as production per cattle per year is estimated to be only 8.5kg; and about 3 kg per sheep or goat per year. The per capita consumption of all meat is estimated at7.6 kg.
Poverty, Hunger, and Malnutrition
Ethiopia’s annual per capita income is USD 170 (PIF 2010-2020). 65% of the population is considered food secure; 21% mildly food insecure; 13% moderately food insecure and 1% being considered severely food insecure (UNDAF 2012-2015). One third (30%) of Ethiopia’s population live below the national poverty line of USD 1.25 per capita per day, with most rural households earning less than USD 0.50 per capita per day. Overall poverty has declined to 29.2% in 2009/10 from the high of 50% in 2000 with marked differences between urban and rural areas.
The food poverty head count index has dropped from 38% in 2004/5 to 28.2% in 2009/10. Poverty and food insecurity are disproportionately biased against female headed households. According to the UNDAF (2010) high malnutrition rates exist especially among children less than five years of age-prevalence in 2010 was recorded as stunting (38 %); underweight (34 %); and wastage (11%). Ethiopia’s overall GDP grew at average of 11% per annum from 2005/6 to 2009/10, during PASDEP.
In 2009/10 the share of agriculture in real GDP declined from 43% in 2004/05 to 41.6%. Agriculture still remains the major source of occupation (83%) of the population and the biggest (90%) source of export earnings. Its decisive role in poverty alleviation cannot be emphasized more.
Pastoral areas are characterized by:
• Pastoralism main production system
• Mobility of the people with livestock for searching of water and feed
• Huge cross border socioeconomic interaction
• Strong traditional institutions for grazing land and water points and conflict management
• huge rivers for irrigation development / opportunity for diversification of livelihoods ( Awash, Wabi Shebelle, Genale Dawa, Omo etc)
• Diversified agro-ecology conducive for livestock /crop development
• Economic contribution of PAPs: livestock, geothermal, eco-tourism is significant
• Increased demand for livestock products with geographic proximity to MENA markets
In the arid and semi-arid areas (pastoral areas) of the country the following disaster are the common features:
• Disease outbreaks (human and livestock) and plant pests