Uganda

Country background

Landlocked Uganda has transformed itself from a country with a troubled past to one of relative stability and prosperity.Since its independence from Britain in 1962, the east African nation has endured a military coup, followed by a brutal military dictatorship which ended in 1979, disputed elections in 1980 and a five-year war that brought current President Yoweri Museveni to power in 1986.

The country has also had to contend with a brutal 20-year insurgency in the north, led by the Lord’s Resistance Army. While the country has won praise for its vigorous campaign against HIV/AIDS it has also attracted international attention for its hardening stance against the LGBT community.

Pastoralism in Uganda Historically, pastoralism in Uganda has been viewed as a retrogressive and backward practice. Official policy has been discouraging pastoralism in favour of sedentary livestock production. Despite this, the pastoralist subsector has continued to contribute significantly to the economy of the country in both direct monetary terms and non-monetized contributions like manure, traction power, livelihood safety nets and ecological conservation.

Drylands account for over 90% of the national herd of cattle with 50% of the cattle owned by pastoralists. Despite this strong standing, nowhere else in the country are poverty indicators more glaring? With over 40% of the pastoralists living under the poverty line, Drylands constitute a severe poverty hotspot.

This situation gets worse when other aspects of poverty are factored in. It is notable, however, that pastoral livestock production makes a very significant contribution to both the GDP (7.5%) and the agricultural GDP (AGDP) (17%).

The earnings from the exports of hides and skin generated US$19m in 2001/02, fourth after fish (US$88m), coffee (US$85m), and maize (US$20m). A recent study (Oxfam, 2003) in the pastoralist districts of Kotido, Nakasongola and Sembabule indicated that even here, district revenues on account of livestock activities alone amounted to 60%, 65% and 50% of total revenues respectively. Despite this contribution, pastoralists remain a forgotten lot in national development plans. Clearly, there is minimal direct investment into livestock production, both at national or local government level.

The potential opportunity cost of the continued exclusion of livestock in general and pastoralists in particular from mainstream economic activities has been estimated at UGX24 billion per annum, excluding middlemen, industries, exporters and non-monetized activities. Without productivity increases, pastoral communities in the drylands can only develop as fast as the animal population they depend on. However, present livestock populations are in many cases close to or above the maximum a diminishing resource base can support over the longer term, suffice it to note that increased livestock productivity is hardly possible when human and animal populations are pressing constantly against resource base limits.

There is limited crop production in the drylands; moreover, this is destined for household use or local trading at relatively low prices. Local and transboundary rustling are depleting the cattle in the northeast. All these curtail incentives to invest in land resources conservation. The current government drive for modernizing agriculture has apparently tended to focus more on production of crops while the livestock 8 Dryland Husbandry in Uganda sector has continued to receive minimal attention despite its big contribution of about 38% to the agricultural GDP. It is important to note, however, that modernization of the livestock sector should be dully addressed giving special consideration to the pastoral livestock producers inhabiting the rangelands of Uganda because they occupy approximately 35% of the total area and keep about 95% of the total cattle population of the country. 

 

Republic of Uganda

The Uganda IDDRSI Coordination Mechanism will be housed in the office of the prime Minister whose mandate is enshrined in Article 108 A of the Constitution ‘as the Leader of Government Business in Parliament and be responsible for coordination and implementation of Government Policies across Ministries, Departments and other Public Institutions’’. It will also be informed by the country programming paper and IDDRSI strategy.  Key principles of the Coordination Mechanism will include government ownership and leadership, multi-sectoral representation, multi-stakeholder representation and participation, sustained technical assistance and capacity building. 

At Sector level the designated lead ministries and agencies will coordinate the sectoral technical stakeholders in implementation of IDDRSI Priority Intervention Areas (PIAs) thus:

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  •  An Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee:

This body is constituted by all the Ministers of all the relevant ministries, as the highest decision making organ. The key functions of the Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee will be provision of policy directions, political support, linkage to cabinet and parliament and reporting to the Prime Minister, who will be the patron of the Coordination Mechanism in the Country.

The Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee will be composed of:

1/ Hon. Minister, Office of the Prime Minister – Chair

2/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal industry and Fisheries    – Co-chair

3/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of trade, industry and Cooperatives – Member

4/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Member

5/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development- Member

6/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development –    Member

7/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Gender, labour and social Development – Member

8/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of water and Environment –   Member.

9/ Uganda Wildlife Authority (Ministry of Tourism, wildlife and Antiquities) -Member

10/Ministry of lands, Housing and Urban Dev’t. -Member

11/ Min of Local Government-Member

12/Min of Health -Member

13/Min of Education and Sports- Member

  • Steering Committee:

The Technical Committee is constituted of the permanent Secretaries, Directors and Commissioners in line Ministries, key technical development partners, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), private sector and the head of the secretariat from OPM. The main functions of the Technical Committee will include supervision and back stopping of the implementation of the IDDRSI, guiding resource mobilization and allocation, monitoring progress, and reporting to the Inter-Ministerial policy Committee.  

  • Technical Committee:

This is a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder committee, with leadership from OPM. The membership will include middle level/ technical staff from line MDAs (Ministries, Development partners/Agencies),NGOS/CSOS and private sector. The main functions will be: Coordination, monitoring and Evaluation, Planning and Budgeting, Implementation, Information Management, Capacity Building, Lobbying and Advocacy, Resource mobilization and Reporting to the Steering Committee. 

  • At Sectoral Level.

Designated lead ministries and agencies will coordinate the technical stakeholders in implementation of IDDRSI Priority Intervention Areas (PIAs) thus:

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